What Is Sepsis?

Sepsis is a dangerous complications due to infection. Complications of the infected infection can cause blood pressure to drop dramatically and damage to many organs. Both of these can cause death. When an infection occurs, the immune system will be active to fight the cause of infection. Sepsis arises when this immune system fights uncontrolled infections. Although classified as deadly, sepsis can still be treated. Therefore, immediately consult a doctor if you experience an infectious disease, especially if you have symptoms of sepsis.

Symptoms and Causes of Sepsis 
Symptoms of sepsis are symptoms of infection. One symptom that can occur during infection is fever, muscle aches, and diarrhea. In addition, sufferers of infection need to immediately see a doctor if they experience a heart pounding and shortness of breath.

Sepsis is caused by an uncontrolled immune system response to infection. Sepsis can occur due to infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi in any part of the body. However, the infection that most often triggers sepsis is wet lung.

Sepsis Diagnosis and Treatment 
The doctor will ask for symptoms that are experienced and do a physical examination. In addition there are additional tests to determine the cause and location of the infection, such as urine and stool examination, sputum examination, imaging, and biopsy.

Sepsis needs to be treated immediately. To deal with sepsis the doctor will take action with the following objectives:
  • Prevent dehydration and acute kidney failure.
  • Keep blood pressure normal.
  • Maintain oxygen flow.
  • Maintain normal blood sugar levels.
  • Deal with infections that cause sepsis.
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Symptoms of Sepsis

Sepsis is the body's uncontrolled response due to infection. Therefore, early symptoms of sepsis are symptoms of infection. Infection can occur throughout the body, so the symptoms also vary depending on the part of the body that has an infection. There are several symptoms that can occur during infection, including:
  • Fever
  • Muscle ache
  • Limp
  • Cough
  • Diarrhea
Beware if the infection you experience causes complaints of heart palpitations and shortness of breath, because this infection may have caused sepsis. Immediately consult a doctor if you have an infection, especially if the two symptoms above have arisen.

Sepsis that is not immediately treated and worsens, can lower blood pressure to a level that is harmful to the body. This condition is called shock. When shock occurs, blood flow throughout the body decreases, causing disruption of the body's organs, even death of body tissues.

Some symptoms that indicate that the sepsis condition is severe are:
  • Shivering
  • Pale skin
  • Urination decreases
  • Bleeding
  • Decreased awareness
  • Hard to breathe
Not only in adults, sepsis can also occur in children, but the symptoms are difficult to recognize, especially in infants. If your child has an infectious disease, some of the following symptoms need to be watched out because it can indicate the occurrence of sepsis:
  • Pale
  • Looks sluggish and hard to wake up
  • The body feels cold to the touch
  • The eyes look sunken
  • No urination for 12 hours
  • Stiff neck
  • Vomiting is green or black
  • Shortness of breath or even breathing quickly
  • Seizures

Causes of Sepsis

Sepsis is caused by an uncontrolled immune system response to infection. When an infection occurs, the body's immune system releases chemicals into the bloodstream to fight the cause of infection. This reaction will cause inflammation in the place of infection. Whereas in sepsis, chemicals are released uncontrollably, triggering inflammation throughout the body.

Sepsis can occur due to infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi in any part of the body. However, the infections that most often trigger sepsis are:
  • Wet lung (pneumonia)
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Infection of the digestive tract
  • Bacterial infections in the bloodstream (bacteremia)
Risk Factors for Sepsis
Sepsis can occur in everyone. However, there are several factors that make an infected person more easily experience sepsis, namely:
  • Age is too old (> 75 years), or too young (<1 year).
  • Have extensive burns.
  • Alk addiction
  • Has diabetes.
  • Are using certain medical aids, such as urine catheters or breath hoses.
  • Suffered from a severe illness and was being treated at an intensive care unit (ICU).
  • Get treatment that can weaken the immune system, such as chemotherapy or corticosteroids.
  • Suffering from a disease that weakens the immune system, such as AIDS or cancer.
  • Is pregnant.

Sepsis Diagnosis and Treatment
The doctor will first ask about the symptoms experienced by the patient. Then, the doctor will measure the patient's temperature, heart rate and breathing rate. Blood tests will also be performed to see the possibility of infection in the blood, evaluate liver and kidney function, measure electrolyte levels, measure oxygen levels in the body, and see blood clotting times.

To determine the location and cause of infection, the doctor can carry out the following checks:
  • Urine and stool examination.
  • Sputum examination.
  • Imaging, such as X-rays, ultrasound, CT scan, and MRI.
  • Biopsy, which is taking tissue samples to be examined under a microscope.
Sepsis can develop rapidly and cause organ damage, even death. Therefore, treatment must be done immediately. The following are the objectives and ways to deal with sepsis:
  • Prevent dehydration and acute kidney failure. The doctor will give a fluid infusion and monitor the amount of urine. Therefore, the patient will be placed in a urine catheter so that the amount of urine can be monitored. In cases of sepsis that have damaged kidney function, doctors will recommend dialysis.
  • Keep blood pressure normal. In addition to preventing dehydration and kidney failure, fluid infusions also function to maintain normal blood pressure. If blood pressure is still low, the doctor will give medication to increase blood pressure, such as norepinephrine, dopamine, or dobutamine.
  • Maintain oxygen flow. In patients who have experienced respiratory problems, the flow of oxygen will be disrupted. So it is necessary to install a breathing apparatus.
  • Maintain normal blood sugar levels. In patients with high blood sugar, injections of insulin will also be given.
Other drugs, such as corticosteroids, painkillers, or sedatives, will be given according to the patient's condition.

In addition, infections that cause sepsis must also be treated. The doctor will give antibiotics, antiviral, or antifungal drugs, depending on the cause of the infection. In some cases, the doctor will perform surgery to get rid of sources of infection, such as abscesses (a collection of pus) and gangrene (tissue that dies due to severe infection or lack of blood supply).

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