What Is Cervisitis?

Cervicitis is inflammation that occurs in the cervix. The cervix is the lowest part of the uterus that is connected to the vagina. Like other tissues in the body, the cervix can also be inflamed for various reasons, namely infections (eg sexually transmitted infections ) and non-infectious factors (such as irritation or allergies). This inflammation can be indicated by bleeding from the vagina outside the menstrual period, or pain during sexual intercourse, and abnormal discharge from the vagina.

Cervicitis can occur acutely which occurs suddenly and severely, or chronically which develops for a long time. If this condition is not treated, cervicitis that occurs due to infection can spread to the abdominal cavity, causing fertility problems, and problems with the fetus for pregnant women.

Symptoms of Cervicitis

Most servicitis sufferers do not feel any symptoms, and they only realize the disease after undergoing a doctor's examination for other reasons. Conversely, there are some sufferers who experience or feel cervicitis symptoms. Among others are:
  • Unusual and large amounts of vaginal discharge. This liquid can be pale grayish yellow with an unpleasant odor.
  • Frequent and painful urination.
  • Dyspareunia .
  • Bleeding from the vagina after sexual intercourse.
  • The vagina is painful.
  • The pelvis feels depressed.
  • Back pain.
  • Pain in the pelvis or abdomen.
  • Fever.
Inflammation of the cervix can become severe if it develops further, which is characterized by the formation of open wounds or discharge from the vagina in the form of pus.

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Causes of Cervicitis

Cervicitis is caused by a bacterial or viral infection that occurs during sexual intercourse. Examples of infections that spread from sexual relations are gonorrhea, chlamydia , trichomoniasis, and genital herpes. Apart from infection, some conditions that can cause cervicitis are:
  • Allergic reactions, to spermicides (substances that can kill sperm) or latex material from contraceptives, and female products.
  • Growth of normal flora (good bacteria) that is uncontrolled in the vagina.
  • Irritation or injury due to the use of tampons.
  • Hormone imbalance, where estrogen levels are much lower than progesterone levels, which interfere with the body's ability to maintain cervical health
  • Cancer or cancer treatment side effects.
Some factors that can cause a person more at risk of cervicitis are:
  • Having unprotected sex, including frequent changing partners and having unprotected sex.
  • Active sexual intercourse from a young age.
  • Have a history of cervicitis or sexually transmitted diseases.

Diagnosis of Cervicitis

A patient may be suspected by the doctor of suffering from cervicitis based on symptoms present in him and physical examination. This examination involves observing the pelvis to see areas of inflammation in the form of swelling or soft parts, as well as observing the condition of the vagina and cervix with a speculum device.

To ensure a diagnosis, the doctor usually still has to carry out investigations. One of them is a pap smear , where the doctor will take fluid samples from the cervix and vagina, for further investigation in the laboratory . Another type of examination is to use a camera hose (endoscope), to see any abnormal conditions in the vagina and cervix more clearly.

Treatment of Cervicitis

Handling of cervicitis is based on the cause and severity. For noninfectious cervicitis, such as irritation to the use of certain materials, tools, or products, what the patient needs to do is stop using it until healed.

While for cases of cervicitis due to sexually transmitted infections, administration of drugs is needed, both for sufferers and their partners. The aim is to eliminate infection and prevent transmission. Examples of drugs that can be given based on the organisms that cause infection are:
  • Antibiotics. This drug is used to treat cervicitis due to bacterial infections, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia , and bacterial vaginosis .
  • Antiviral. This drug is used to treat cervicitis due to viral infections, such as genital herpes or genital warts.
  • Antifungal. This drug is used to treat cervicitis due to fungal infections .
If the above medicines are not effective in treating cervicitis, because the condition is severe enough, the doctor will advise the patient to undergo the following treatment methods:
  • Cryosurgery . The doctor will use special media that can freeze the tissue affected by cervicitis. After being frozen with this very cold temperature, the tissue will disintegrate by itself.
  • Electric surgery. This is a surgical technique using electricity, to burn or destroy the tissue affected by cervicitis.
  • Laser therapy. The doctor will use a special device that can emit strong light waves, to cut, burn, and destroy the tissue affected by cervicitis.

Prevention of Cervicitis
There are several ways that we can do so not to get this disease. These include:
  • Practicing safe sex, such as not changing partners.
  • Avoid feminine products that contain perfume, because it can cause irritation to the vagina or cervix.

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