What Is Epididymitis?

Epididymitis is inflammation of the epididymis or duct which serves as a place for storing and channeling sperm. The Epididymis is located behind the testicles and connects the testes to the vas deferens, continuing to the ejaculatory duct, prostate, and urethra, during ejaculation. When experiencing epididymitis, the duct becomes swollen causing pain. This inflammation can also spread to the testicles ( epididymo-orchitis ). Epididymitis can affect men of all ages, but most often at the age of 19-35 years.

Symptoms of Epididymitis
The following are some of the symptoms that people with epididymitis can experience:
  • The scrotum will swell, feel warm and painful when touched.
  • Pain in the testis, usually on one side.
  • Blood in sperm fluid.
  • Pain when urinating.
  • Often want to urinate and always feel incomplete.
  • Lumps appear around the testes caused by fluid buildup.
  • The tip of the penis secretes abnormal fluid, usually associated with sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Pain during ejaculation or sexual intercourse.
  • Discomfort or pain in the lower abdomen or around the pelvis.
  • Enlarged lymph nodes in the groin.
  • Fever.

Causes of Epididymitis
Most cases of epididymitis are caused by bacterial infections that start from the urethra, prostate, or bladder. In addition to bacterial infections, epididymitis can also be caused by:
  • Urine deposits in the epididymis. This condition occurs when urine flows back into the epididymis.
  • Mumps ( mumps ).
  • Amiodarone side effects.
  • Sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia .
  • Torsio testis .
  • Behḉet's disease.
  • Tuberculosis.
There are a number of factors that can increase a person's risk of getting epididymitis. Among others are:
  • Having sex with a person with a sexually transmitted disease, without using a condom.
  • Has a history of sexually transmitted infections .
  • Have had a medical procedure that affects the urinary tract.
  • Suffering from prostate enlargement.
  • Have had a prostate infection or urinary tract infection.
  • Men who have not been circumcised.
  • Anatomically abnormal urinary tract.
  • Using a long-term urine catheter.
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Epididymitis Diagnosis
A patient can be suspected of having epididimitis by a doctor, based on symptoms and physical examination, especially if there is swelling around the testicles.

To find out the causes of epididymitis, doctors will recommend several types of examinations, such as:
  • Test liquid samples. The doctor will wipe a small wiping cloth at the tip of the penis to take a sample of urethral fluid. The goal is to find out the presence of bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Blood and urine tests. A blood test in the form of a complete blood count is performed to determine the presence of an infection in the body. While examination of urine samples is done to find out whether there is a urinary tract infection.
  • Digital rectal examination . This test is done to determine the problem in the prostate gland.
  • Ultrasound. Ultrasound can give an idea of ​​testicular torsion. While ultrasound with Doppler technology , can be used to check the smooth flow of blood in the testicles.

Treatment of Epididymitis
Treatment of epididymitis aims to treat infection and relieve symptoms. One of them is by administering drugs, such as:
  • Antibiotics. Antibiotics must be spent even though the symptoms have improved, to make sure the infection is completely gone. Examples of antibiotic drugs that can be prescribed by doctors are doxycycline and ciprofloxacin .
  • Painkillers . To relieve pain caused by epididymitis, the doctor will prescribe painkillers. Examples are paracetamol or ibuprofen.
In addition to drugs, patients can make independent efforts at home to help relieve symptoms of epididmitis. These include:
  • Lie in bed for at least 2 days, with the position of the scrotum lifted (assisted by a support).
  • Compress the scrotum with cold water.
  • Avoid lifting heavy loads.
In cases of epididymitis that are not managed with medication, the doctor will recommend surgery. This procedure can be done if pus has appeared in the epididym. In other more severe cases, patients are forced to undergo an epididymectomy or surgery to remove the epididymal duct.

Epididymitis Complications
Some of the complications that can arise due to epididymitis are:
  • The appearance of an abscess (purulent infection) in the scrotum.
  • Reduced fertility.
  • Tearing of the scrotal skin layer.
  • Death of testicular tissue due to lack of blood ( testicular infarction ).

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