Borderline Personality Disorder ( BPD ) or personality disorder threshold is a condition that arises due to disruption of one's mental health. This condition has an impact on the way of thinking and feeling towards self and others, and the existence of abnormal behavior patterns. BPD can cause impaired function of someone running daily life and interpersonal relationship with the surrounding. This disorder generally appears in the period before adulthood, but can also improve with age.
Patients with BPD can have feelings of fear of being left out, rejected, anxious, angry, feeling insignificant, and a tendency to harm themselves and others. Impulsive actions, frequent mood changes, and low self-image make it difficult for a person to maintain a committed and lasting relationship.
The cause of BPD ( Borderline Personality Disorder )
The exact cause of BPD can not be clearly known. It is estimated that the history of abuse or torture experienced during childhood has been associated with the occurrence of BPD.
Another thing that is also associated with BPD is the genetic factor. According to some studies, a history of personality disorders possessed by one family member may be passed on through genes to other family members.
Some studies also show changes in some areas of the brain, especially those that play a role in regulating one's emotional, aggression, and impulsiveness, can be attributed to the emergence of BPD conditions. In addition, decreased function of brain chemicals, such as serotonin, is also associated with BPD. Serotonin serves to control mood (mood).
Certain personality traits can also be a risk factor for the development of BPD. For example someone with an aggressive and impulsive personality.
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Symptoms of BPD ( Borderline Personality Disorder )
Bo rderline personality disorder (BPD) can affect one's thinking and behavior. Symptoms that can arise include:
- Feeling fear is ignored so as to make the sufferer avoid separation, criticism, or rejection.
- The rapidly changing image and identity that affect the values and goals it knows. Patients with BPD can see themselves as a bad figure, resembling the antagonist figure in a film.
- Experiencing periods of stress that trigger paranoia, as well as loss of connection with reality that can last up to several hours.
- Experiencing mood swings that last for days.
- Having impulsive behaviors that are risky and sometimes dangerous, such as gambling, unsafe sexual relations, careless driving, or wasteful. A person with a BPD can quit his job for no apparent reason or end a basically good romance.
- Easily lose patience and get very angry to trigger a fight or a fight.
- At a moment can respect or care for someone, but then change and consider the person as a bad person.
- Feel the psychological void that goes on and on.
- Can behave in self-harm to suicide in response to anger, self-punishment, fear of abandonment, or rejection.
Immediately see a doctor if you are aware of the presence of symptoms of this condition, either to yourself or to friends and family. Talk with friends or family members about getting information or assistance from professional medical personnel in a good and coercive manner.
Diagnosis of BPD ( Borderline Personality Disorder )
The physician's effort to recognize and diagnose borderline personality disorder (BPD) begins by observing the behavior that matches the above symptoms. Given the history of traumatic events, past physical and mental health conditions, as well as any medication ever taken may help doctors, psychologists, or psychiatrists in diagnosing.
Usually the doctor will do an interview to ask these things while looking at your health record. In addition, your doctor will perform a psychological evaluation, including instructing you to fill out a questionnaire. Generally the diagnosis of BPD is found in adult patients, this is because the condition of BPD can decrease as the child ages.
Treatment of BPD ( Borderline Personality Disorder )
The main borderline personality disorder (BPD) treatment is through psychotherapy. Drugs and hospital care can also be recommended, according to the patient's condition and safety if necessary. In some cases, people with BPD may be hospitalized to prevent self-injury or suicide.
Handling BPD through psychotherapy intends to help sufferers have a more stable life and direct aspects of life for the better. Psychotherapy, also called talk therapy, is a fundamental approach in treating BPD to help people understand this condition and focus on their current abilities. Psychotherapy also aims to help people with BPD in regulating emotional sides that make themselves uncomfortable, recognizing themselves, and controlling their feelings toward themselves and others.
Psychotherapy intends to train the patient in recognizing and analyzing his own feelings. Patients are also expected to suppress his feelings are impulsive, such as restrain anger arising from the situation he faced. Thus can reduce rough behavior and ultimately can improve the quality of social relationships. Therefore, people with BPD will undergo a form of psychological therapy, for example:
- Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)This therapy uses a capability-based approach in teaching BPD sufferers to manage emotions, tolerate psychiatric stress, and improve social relationships. This therapy can be done alone or in a consultation group with a therapist.
- Mentalization-based therapy (MBT)This therapy emphasizes the method of thinking before reacting. MBT helps BPD sufferers to recognize their own feelings and thoughts by creating an alternative perspective of the situation at hand.
- Schema-focused therapyThis therapy helps BPD sufferers to recognize unmet needs in the early period of life that can trigger negative life behavior patterns. Therapy will focus on efforts to meet those needs through a healthier way to build a positive pattern of living behavior. As with DBT therapy, this therapy can be done individually or in a consultation group.
- Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) or psychodynamic therapyThis therapy helps BPD sufferers understand the emotions and difficulties they experienced in developing interpersonal relationships. TFP looks at the relationship built between BPD sufferers and therapists in understanding this problem. Furthermore, the knowledge the patient gets will be applied to the situation he is experiencing at the moment.
- General psychiatric managementThis therapy uses case management by focusing on creating events that trigger emotional distress to make sense. This approach is done by considering feelings as interpersonal contexts and can be combined with medication, group therapy, family counseling, or even individuals.
- System training for emotional predictability and problem solving ( systems training for emotional predictability and problem-solving (STEPPS)This therapy is a group therapy with family members, friends, spouses, or caregivers as part of a therapeutic group that lasts for 20 weeks. This therapy is also used as an adjunct therapy with other psychotherapy.
- Mood stabilizer
Complications of BPD ( Borderline Personality Disorder )
If not receiving appropriate treatment, borderline personality disorder (BPD) risks interfering with various aspects of the patient's life, such as:
- Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages or drug abuse
- Have anxiety disorder
- Diet disorders
- Bipolar disorder
- Having post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- It has a disorder called attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or hyperactive disease
- Have a personality disorder
- Losing a good relationship with each other or partner, both in friendship and marriage.
- Being in an unhealthy or violent relationship
- Losing a job or changing jobs frequently
- Loss of opportunity in completing education
- Get involved with the law, to go to jail
- Experiencing physical injury resulting from self-injurious tendencies
- Having an out-of-date pregnancy, having a sexually transmitted disease, or an accident due to an impulsive and risky behavior
- Conducting suicide attempts