What Is Ovarian Cancer?

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that attacks the uterus or female reproductive system. This cancer is also often called endometrial cancer because it generally appears by attacking the cells that make up the uterine wall or its medical terminometrium. In addition, this cancer can also attack the muscles around the uterus so as to form a uterine sarcoma, but very rare.

Symptoms of cervical cancer is usually experienced by the sufferer is vaginal bleeding. Although not all abnormal bleeding caused by cervical cancer, but you still need to be vigilant and should see a doctor. Especially if you:
  • It's menopause , but still bleeding.
  • Not yet menopause, but bleeding outside the menstrual cycle.
Trigger Factor of Uterine Cancer
The cause of cervical cancer is not known for certain. But the main factor that can increase the risk of cervical cancer is body hormonal imbalance, especially estrogen. High levels of estrogen can increase a person's risk of developing uterine cancer.

Some other factors that can cause unbalanced hormones are:
  • Late menstruation or late menopause.
  • Obesity.
  • Diabetes.
  • Hormone replacement therapy.
  • Use of long-term tamoxifen.
Because of the unknown cause, a definite precautionary measure for cervical cancer is also absent. However, measures to reduce the risk persist. For example:
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Increase soy consumption.
  • Long-term use for certain types of contraceptives, such as birth control pills.

Treatment For Ovarian Cancer
Common uterine cancer treatment is hysterectomy or surgical removal of the uterus. Hysterectomy can be performed to cure early-stage uterine cancer, but makes the patient unable to conceive.

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are sometimes used and combined with surgery. In addition, hormone therapy can also be done for patients who have not been menopausal and still want to have children.

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Symptoms Of Ovarian Cancer

The most common symptom in uterine cancer is vaginal bleeding. It is estimated that about 9 out of 10 uterine cancer patients experience this symptom.

Although not all abnormal bleeding caused by cervical cancer, but you still need to be vigilant and should see a doctor if this happens. Other symptoms you need to be aware of include:
  • Vaginal bleeding after menopause and beyond the menstrual cycle.
  • Excessive bleeding during menstruation.
  • Vaginal secretions are fluid or dilute blood.
  • Pain in the pelvis.
  • Decreased appetite.
  • Pain during intercourse.
  • Fatigue.
  • Pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Nausea.
Women who experience the above symptoms should immediately see a doctor to determine whether it is caused by cervical cancer or not. But whatever the cause, diagnosis and treatment should be done as soon as possible.

Causes Of Uterine Cancer

The cause of cervical cancer is not known for certain. However, there are several factors that can increase a person's risk of this condition, including:

Exposure to Estrogen
Estrogen is one of the hormones that serves to regulate the female reproductive system. Together with progesterone, they work together to regulate the balance of the reproductive system. After menopause , the production of the hormone progesterone stops completely while the production of the hormone estrogen still exists despite decreasing dramatically. Estrogen levels can be increased if not matched by the hormone progesterone. Therefore, the risk of cervical cancer for women who have experienced menopause tend to be higher.

Women who experience menopause at older than average and women who start menstruating at a younger age have a higher risk of developing uterine cancer. The reason is because they are exposed to estrogen for longer periods than women who start menstruating more late or women who experience menopause at a normal age.

Never Pregnant
At the time of pregnancy, female progesterone levels are higher than estrogen. Therefore, women who have never been pregnant have a higher risk of cervical cancer.

Hormone Replacement Therapy
This type of estrogen replacement therapy should only be given to women who have had a hysterectomy whereas if the uterus is still present, combination hormone replacement therapy (estrogen and progesterone ) should be used to reduce the risk of uterine cancer.

The Effect of Excess Weight Or Obesity
Estrogen levels in the body of women who are overweight or obese is higher so that it can increase the risk of uterine cancer more than twice. This is because fat tissue will produce additional estrogen, while the body does not produce additional progesterone hormones to compensate.

The Effect of Age
Most cervical cancers affect elderly women who have experienced menopause.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
People with polycystic ovary syndrome are at high risk of developing uterine cancer due to high levels of estrogen exposure.

Type 2 Diabetes Risk
Women with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of developing uterine cancer. This is because women with type 2 diabetes tend to be overweight or obese.

Use of Tamoxifen
All drugs must have risks and side effects, including tamoxifen which can increase the risk of uterine cancer for its users.

Endometrial hyperplasia
This is a condition where the lining of the uterus becomes thicker. Women who experience this condition have a greater risk of uterine cancer.

Diagnosis Of Uterine Cancer

Uterine cancer is not necessarily the cause of all abnormal bleeding in the vaginal organs, but you are advised to continue to see a doctor to be diagnosed with certainty. There are two steps to ensure the existence of cervical cancer, namely:
  • Transvaginal USG test. This type of ultrasound is used to examine changes in uterine wall thickness that may be caused by the presence of cancer cells.
  • Blood Test. Cancer cells release some chemicals into the patient's blood, which can be detected by blood testing.
  • Biopsy Test. This step is applied by taking and examining samples of cells from the uterine wall to be seen under a microscope. There are three ways to perform a biopsy, with fine needle aspiration, hiterescopy, and curettage.
If a positive diagnosis of uterine cancer, the doctor will check the stage of development (stage) of the cancer. Tests that are commonly recommended are chest x-rays, MRI scans , CT scans , and advanced blood tests.

The stages of uterine cancer include:
  • Stage 1 - cancer is present only in the womb.
  • Stage 2 - The cancer has spread to the cervix or cervix.
  • Stage 3 - The cancer has spread beyond the uterus and invades the tissue around the pelvis or lymph stain.
  • Stage 4 - The cancer has spread to the abdominal tissues or other organs, such as the bladder, colon, liver, or lung.

Uterine Cancer Treatment

Determination of treatment methods for uterine cancer that you will live depends on the stage of cancer, health condition, and your desire to have children. Do not hesitate to ask as much detail as possible to the doctor if you are in doubt.

The earlier the uterine cancer is detected, your chances of survival or recovery will be higher. If it is detected with uterine cancer at stage 1 or 2, a person has 75 percent chance of surviving for five years or more. Most of uterine cancer patients diagnosed in stage 1 finally recovered completely.

Meanwhile, a person who was detected with uterine cancer in stage 3 had a 45 percent chance of surviving for at least five years. Whereas in the group of stage 4 sufferers, only one out of four survived within the next 5 years.

Cancer at an advanced stage can not be cured. But treatment steps can be done to reduce the size of cancer and inhibit its growth so as to reduce the symptoms felt by the patient.

Treatment Methods For Ovarian Cancer

Hysterectomy or surgical removal of the uterus is the most commonly recommended treatment of uterine cancer. This operation will remove your chances of conceiving. Therefore, people with cervical cancer who still want to have children may feel reluctant to live it.

The type of hysterectomy to be lived also depends on the stage of uterine cancer suffered.

The surgery to be performed by stage 1 cervical cancer patients includes removal of the uterus, both ovary and fallopian tubes. Doctors will also usually take samples from the surrounding lymph nodes to check for possible cancer spread.

In addition to a large general incision surgery, hysterectomy can also be performed by surgery that only applies a few small incisions or better known as laparoscopic hysterectomy.

For patients with stage 2 or 3 cervical cancer, patients are advised to undergo radical or total hysterectomy. In addition to the uterus, both ovary and fallopian tubes, this surgery involves removal of the upper cervix and vagina.

For patients with stage 4 cervical cancer, surgical removal of cancer as much as possible will be recommended. This procedure is not for healing, but to reduce the symptoms of the patient.

After surgery, uterine cancer patients will usually require radiotherapy or chemotherapy to reduce the risk of cancer reappearing.


Radiotherapy can prevent the return of cancer in women who have undergone hysterectomy. In addition, for further cases, radiotherapy is used to inhibit the spread of cancer, for example if the patient's condition does not allow him to undergo surgical removal of the uterus.

Side effects of this treatment method are:
  • The skin on the treated part becomes red and sore.
  • Fatigue.
  • Nausea.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Bleeding in the rectum.
Generally side effects will disappear when radiotherapy treatment is stopped.


Chemotherapy is usually used for uterine cancer patients in stage 3 or 4 and is generally given gradually through an IV. In addition to preventing cancer reappear in treatable cases, this treatment can also be used post-hysterectomy for cases with further stages in inhibiting the spread of cancer and reduce symptoms.

Some of the side effects of this method are hair loss , fatigue, nausea , and vomiting.

Hormone therapy

This therapy is commonly used to treat advanced stage cervical cancer or cancer that reappears. This type of treatment serves to shrink the tumor and control the symptoms. Hormone therapy is done by artificially producing progesterone hormone in tablet form to replace the body's natural progesterone hormone.

Side effects of this treatment step is weight gain, muscle cramps, and nausea.

Prevention Of Uterine Cancer
Because the cause is not known for certain, cervical cancer also can not be prevented completely. However, you can take the following steps to reduce your risk of developing cervical cancer:

Maintain a healthy weight through diet and exercise
This is one of the most effective ways to prevent any disease, including cervical cancer. One way is to exercise at least 2-3 hours a week and eat foods low in fat and high in fiber.

Use Contraception
The type of contraceptive that is shown to decrease the risk of cervical cancer is a combination pill used in the long term. While other types that may help to reduce the risk are implant KB (implants) and Intrauterine devices (IUD) that contain the hormone progestogen .

Susui child with breast milk
If the condition of mother and child possible, milk the child with breast milk. Breastfeeding can decrease the activity of estrogen and ovulation.

Beware of tamoxifen drug use
Tamoxifen is a drug to deal with breast cancer in order not to reappear, but eating them can increase the risk of uterine cancer. Consult about the benefits and side effects of this drug, and be sure to take this medicine as directed by your doctor.

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