What Is Colorectal Cancer?

Colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that grows in the large intestine ( colon ) or rectum. These cancers generally originate from polyps that grow along the inner wall of the colon and rectum. This growing polyp or tissue is usually benign and doesn't cause interference. However, there are also potentially malignant, especially those that already exist in the intestine and rectum for 5 to 15 years.

Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer
The symptoms of colorectal cancer will usually be felt by the patient when the cancer has progressed considerably. The type of symptoms also depends on the location of the growth of cancer. Some common signs and symptoms include:
  • Diarrhea or constipation.
  • The process of defecation (BAB) that feels incomplete.
  • Blood on the stool, usually not much.
  • Feces accompanied by mucus.
  • Nausea.
  • Gag.
  • Stomach ache.
  • Limp and tired.
  • Weight loss for no apparent reason.
If you experience any of these symptoms, consult your doctor immediately. In the early stages, the symptoms of colorectal cancer are often not felt. Therefore, routine checks should be done just in case.

Causes and Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer
Abnormal growth of cells is the source behind all cancers, including colorectal cancer. But until now, the cause of the proliferation of abnormal cells that are not controlled is not known for certain.
Experts suspect there are several factors that can trigger cancer growth. The risk factors are:
  • Influence of age . The risk of colorectal cancer will increase with age. This cancer is estimated to be diagnosed by 9 out of 10 people aged 50 years or older.
  • Hereditary factors . People with family members who have cancer or colorectal polyps have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer.
  • The influence of lifestyle , such as lack of exercise, lack of fiber intake, alcohol consumption, overweight, obesity, or smoking.
  • It has Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis over 9 years .

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Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer
Examination of the physical condition (usually through rectal examination) and asking for symptoms is the first step in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Patient and family health history will also be considered.
If the initial diagnosis is not clear, the doctor will also recommend a number of checks to confirm the diagnosis. Some of them are:
  • Colonoscopy , ie evaluation of the inner conditions of the rectum and colon. This procedure is performed by inserting a flexible long tube and accompanied by a lamp at the end through the anus. This examination may also be accompanied by a flexible sigmoographic examination using shorter slang, CT colonography using X-rays to capture detailed serial images of the intestinal wall, and barium enemas that are streamed with X-rays.
  • Biopsy or tissue sampling of abnormal cells to be examined in the laboratory. A biopsy is performed to confirm the diagnosis.
  • Ultrasound , X-ray , CT , and MRI scans to see the spread of cancer and determine the stage of development of cancer (staging).
In addition to the diagnosis, examination methods are also conducted to determine the development and extent of cancer spread.

Step Treatment of Colorectal Cancer
Diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer as early as possible will increase the chance of recovery in patients. However, if the cancer has progressed at an advanced stage, treatment steps will be taken to prevent the spread as well as relieve the symptoms experienced by the patient.
Just like other cancers, colorectal cancer treatment usually includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The combination of these three treatment steps depends on various factors, such as the patient's health condition as well as the rate of cancer development and spread.
  • Operating proceduresSurgery is a major treatment for colorectal cancer. Usually the part of the intestine or rectum that dtumbuhi cancer will be removed and each end of the digestive tract stitched into one.

    In patients with rectal cancer, usually not many healthy parts are left after cut. So connecting the two ends of the gastrointestinal tract will be very difficult because the network to connect so minimal. These cases are usually solved by colostomy. Colostomy is a hole-making operation on the abdominal wall which is then connected to the end of the intestine that has been cut, in order to remove the stool directly through the abdominal wall and in the container in a bag attached to the abdominal wall outside.

    This procedure is divided into two types, temporary and permanent. Temporary colostomy is performed when the cancer has spread beyond the gastrointestinal wall and the organs or other parts also need to be cleared of cancer cells. To await the recovery of organs or other parts of post-action, the colostomy is temporary and will be closed again. While permanent colostomy is generally recommended for patients who have undergone rectal removal as a whole.
  • Chemotherapy and RadiotherapyThe goal of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is to kill the cancer cells or stop the breeding. Chemotherapy is increasingly being used to treat bowel cancer. While radiotherapy is largely lived by people with colorectal cancer that grows in the rectum.

    Both are also used as a therapy before and after surgery. If done after surgery, then to kill the remaining cancer cells that have spread from the main location of cancer. While chemotherapy or radiotherapy before surgery is given to shrink the tumor to be more easily removed.

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