Ebola is a disease cause by a deadly viral infection, which can cause fever, diarrhea and bleeding in the body of the sufferer. Only 10% of Ebola sufferers have survived this virus infection, but this disease is rare. Until now, Ebola cases have not been found in Indonesia. However, caution and prevention measures against diseases that are endemic to the African continent still need to be done. One way is to maintain cleanliness and apply a healthy lifestyle every day.
The spread of the Ebola virus is thought to originate from interactions between humans and infected animals, such as bats, monkeys, or chimpanzees. Since then, transmission of the virus has begun to occur between people. The patient's blood or body fluids can enter the body of another person through wounds on the skin or the lining of the nose, mouth and rectum. The body fluids in question are saliva, vomiting, sweat, breast milk, urine, feces, and semen.
The Ebola virus can also be transmitted through contact with objects that have been contaminated by the patient's body fluids, such as clothing, sheets, bandages and syringes. However, Ebola is not transmitted by air, or through mosquito bites. Ebola sufferers also cannot transmit the virus to other people until symptoms of the disease appear.
There are several factors that make a person at risk of developing the Ebola virus, namely:
- Travel to countries that have Ebola cases, such as Sudan, Congo, Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone.
- Medical staff, risk being infected if they do not use protective clothing when caring for Ebola patients.
- Family members who live in the same house as patients, are at risk of contracting when treating patients
- Animal researchers are at risk of being infected with the Ebola virus, especially when conducting research on primates imported from Africa.
- Preparing for the funeral of Ebola victims. The bodies of Ebola sufferers are still at risk of transmitting. The funeral process should be left to parties who have been specially trained to deal with the bodies of Ebola sufferers.
Symptoms of Ebola
The initial symptoms of Ebola are fever , headache, chills, pain in muscles and joints, and the body feels weak. These initial symptoms appear within 2-21 days after contact with the patient. Over time, symptoms that are felt to be getting worse, include:
- A skin rash appears.
- Red eye.
- Sore throat.
- Chest pain.
- Gastric pains.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Diarrhea, can be accompanied by blood.
- The weight dropped dramatically.
- Blood flow through the mouth, nose, eyes or ears.
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Ebola is a disease that is difficult to detect because symptoms that appear are almost similar to other infectious diseases, such as flu, malaria or typhus. In diagnosing Ebola, the doctor will do a blood test to detect antibodies formed by the body in response to the Ebola virus. A blood test is also performed to see the body functions that are affected by Ebola, such as:
- Number of blood cells
- Liver function
- Blood clotting function
Treatment of Ebola
The treatment steps taken only aim to control the symptoms and help the patient's immune system to fight the virus. This is because drugs to treat the Ebola virus have not been found to date. Some supporting treatment measures that can be taken, namely:
- Infusion of fluids to prevent dehydration.
- High blood pressure medication to lower blood pressure.
- Additional oxygen to maintain the flow of oxygen throughout the body.
- Blood transfusion , if there is less blood (anemia).
- Hair loss
- Nervous disorders
- Excessive fatigue
- Inflammation of the eyes and testicles
Each patient has a different immune system response to the Ebola virus. Some patients can recover from Ebola without complications, but some may experience life-threatening conditions, such as:
- Great bleeding
- Failure of bodily organs to function
Vaccines to prevent Ebola have not been found to date. The best way to prevent Ebola is to not travel to a country or region that has a history of Ebola. But if you plan to travel to a country that has a case of Ebola, there are a number of steps you can take, namely:
- Keep hands clean by washing hands using alcohol-based water and soap or hand sanitizer.
- Avoid direct contact with people who have a fever and are thought to have symptoms of Ebola.
- Avoid touching objects that have been contaminated with blood or body fluids of Ebola sufferers
- Avoid direct contact with bats and primates that have the potential to transmit viruses, including blood, dirt, and meat.
- Avoid hospitals where Ebola patients undergo treatment.
- Immediately consult a doctor after returning from the area, to detect possible symptoms of Ebola.
- Use personal protective equipment, including protective clothing (apron), masks, gloves, and eye protection, while being around Ebola sufferers.
- Be careful when taking blood or body fluid samples, as well as placing an IV or catheter on
- Always wash hands, especially after touching the patient or objects around the patient.
- Immediately dispose of disposable medical equipment, such as syringes, to a designated place.
- Avoid direct contact with the bodies of Ebola sufferers.