Cystitis is an inflammation in the bladder. This condition is very disturbing comfort. However, this disorder often does not cause serious problems because the patient can recover within a few days. The main cause of inflammation of the bladder is a bacterial infection. Cystitis disease is more common among women. This is caused by the size of the urethra (urine channel) in women is shorter than in men. As a result, the bacteria from around the anus easily enter into the bladder.
Symptoms of Cystitis
Common symptoms that mark the emergence of cystitis disease, among others are:
- Frequency of water that exceeds normal water with a small amount.
- Pain or burning sensation (sore) during urination.
- Urine is cloudy or strong-smelling.
- Pain in the lower abdomen.
- Blood on the urine.
- Body feels less healthy or fever.
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Causes and Risk Factors of Cystitis
Cystitis occurs when bacteria that normally live in the intestine or skin enter and multiply in the urinary tract. Bacteria can enter the urinary tract through the urethra in various ways, such as during intercourse, due to the habit of wiping the anus into the vagina, or when using a catheter.
The bacteria that cause most cases of cystitis is Escherichia coli ( E. coli ). The risk of bacterial infection in the urinary tract can be greater when a person has an impaired emptying of the bladder, menopause, or suffering from diabetes.
In addition to being triggered by various things above, cystitis can also be triggered by factors such as:
- Use of chemotherapy drugs, eg cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide .
- Radiotherapy .
- Certain diseases, such as kidney stones, prostate enlargement, and chronic inflammation of the urinary tract ( interstitial cystitis ).
- Chemicals, such as intimate area cleanser soaps.
Diagnosis of Cystitis
In order to diagnose cystitis, doctors need to perform a physical exam, including asking for symptoms and history of the disease experienced by the patient.
A new cystitis diagnosis may be established if the examination is supplemented with investigations, such as analysis of urine samples to detect the presence of bacteria in the urine, and X-rays or ultrasound to find other causes of urinary tract inflammation. From the urine sample, can also be examined culture or culture to see the causal bacteria and determine the appropriate antibiotic.
Other investigations that provide more detailed results are cystoscopy . In addition to looking at the urinary tract conditions, the examination by inserting a small tube attached to the camera at the end may also be performed for biopsy or tissue sampling of the urinary tract for further study in the laboratory.
Treatment of Cystitis
Once the diagnosis of cystitis is tested positive, the doctor will determine the handling steps the patient needs. The treatment depends on the severity of the patient. Mild cystitis cases can usually recover without treatment within a few days.
Some self-help steps to reduce the symptoms of cystitis include drinking to help clear the infection from the urinary tract, compressing the stomach with warm water or between both thighs to reduce discomfort, and taking pain medication if needed ( paracetamol or ibuprofen ). In addition, it is advisable not to have sex for a while so that the condition of the infection does not get worse.
If cystitis does not subsist, treatment can be done through the administration of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. The doctor may prescribe the appropriate antibiotic dose of the bacteria present in the urine and the severity of cystitis. Antibiotics are usually prescribed for 3-7 days and patients are advised to spend all prescribed antibiotics for infection to be completely lost. For recurrent cases of cystitis, doctors may recommend taking longer antibiotics. Most important, however, is a deeper evaluation with a specialist kidney or urology doctor, to determine the cause of recurrent cystitis.
Complications of Cystitis
If neglected or not treated properly, cystitis is at risk of complications. Examples of complications that can arise due to this disease are urinary tract hematuria and kidney infection ( yelonephritis ) .
Prevention of Cystitis
Cystitis that often relapse would be very disturbing comfort as well as daily activities of the sufferer. There are several simple steps that can be applied to avoid inflammation, while preventing recurrence, including:
- Do not resist the urge to urinate and try to empty the bladder every urine. In addition, try to urinate after sex.
- Avoid cleaning the intimate organs with bath soap or intimate organ-soap cleaning soap containing perfume.
- Drink plenty to prevent breeding of bacteria in the bladder.
- Wear soft cotton underwear.
- Familiarize yourself wiping the anus or rectum toward the back, not toward the vagina.