What Is Bronchitis?


Bronchitis is an infection of the main respiratory tract of the lung or bronchus that causes inflammation of the channel. This condition is included as one of respiratory diseases. The following are some of the symptoms caused by bronchitis:
  • Cough with cough yellow or grayish green.
  • Pain in the throat.
  • Hard to breathe.
  • Runny or clogged nose.
  • Pain or discomfort in the chest.
  • Fatigue.
  • Low-grade fever.
Bronchitis is divided into two types. First, acute bronchitis that lasts for two to three weeks. Acute bronchitis is one of the most common respiratory infections and most commonly affects children under 5 years of age. Second, chronic bronchitis is a bronchial infection that lasts at least three months in a year and recurs the following year. Chronic bronchitis is more common in adults over the age of 40 years.

Causes of Bronchitis Occurrence
The bronchi is the air passage in the respiratory system that carries air to the lungs and vice versa. Bronchial walls produce mucosa or mucus to hold dust and other particles that can cause irritation to avoid entering the lungs.

Acute bronchitis comes from lung infections that are mostly caused by viruses. Irritation and inflammation cause the bronchus to produce more mucosa or mucus. And the body trying to remove mucus or excessive mucosa by way of cough.

The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is smoking. Each suction cigarette has the potential to damage the tiny hairs in the lungs called cilia hair. Ciliary hair serves to dispel and wipe out dust, irritation, and mucosa or excessive mucus. After a while, the content of cigarettes can cause permanent damage to cilia and bronchial wall layers. When this happens, the dirt can not be removed and disposed of normally. Mucus and dirt that accumulate in the lungs make the respiratory system more susceptible to infection.

In most cases, bronchitis can be treated easily at home. You only need to see a doctor if the symptoms of bronchitis that appear to be more severe and unusual, for example:
  • The cough is worse and lasts longer than three weeks.
  • Have a fever for more than three days.
  • Cough with phlegm followed by blood.
  • You suffer from heart disease or lungs that are the underlying cause. For example, asthma , emphysema, or heart failure .
To diagnose bronchitis , your doctor will ask for symptoms experienced, check and also listen to the chest cavity using a stethoscope.

Treatment For Different Types Of Bronchitis
Acute bronchitis usually disappears by itself in a few weeks, so sometimes it is not necessary for bronchitis . While waiting for the disease to pass, you are advised to drink plenty of fluids and also plenty of rest. In some cases, symptoms of bronchitis can last longer.

The symptoms of chronic bronchitis usually last at least three months. There is no drug that can cure chronic bronchitis, but there are drugs that can be used to relieve symptoms that appear. You should avoid smoking or the environment with many smokers in the vicinity. This condition can aggravate the symptoms that appear if you suffer from chronic bronchitis.

Possible Complications
The most common bronchitis complication is pneumonia . This complication occurs when the infection spreads further into the lungs. This infection causes the air bag in the lungs to fill with fluid. About 5 percent of cases of bronchitis lead to pneumonia.

People who are more susceptible to pneumonia, such as parents, smokers, and people who are sick, may need to be hospitalized. This is done as a precaution for the occurrence of pneumonia.

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Symptoms Of Bronchitis

The main symptoms of bronchitis are dry cough. But there is also the possibility of coughing out a thick yellowish-gray mucus, though this is not always the case. Coughing may persist for several weeks after other symptoms disappear. A sustained cough can make the chest and abdominal muscles hurt.

Other Symptoms Emerged
Other bronchitis symptoms are:
  • Hard to breathe
  • Sore throat
  • Fatigue
  • A little fever and shivering
  • Headache
  • Blocked noses and sinuses
  • Body aches
These symptoms may not be severe and you may not need to see a doctor, but the symptoms of bronchitis are similar to pneumonia . It is important to notice changes in symptoms experienced.

Long-term or Chronic Bronchitis
The symptoms of chronic bronchitis usually worsen when the weather becomes colder or drier. Generally, patients with chronic bronchitis have two severe bronchitis attacks within a year. If you suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), you will be more out of breath during exercise or on the move. The following are symptoms that usually appear in chronic or acute bronchitis:
  • Wheezing
  • Cough .
  • Production of mucosa or mucus is yellow, green, grayish, and can be mixed with blood lasting at least 3 months and repeated 2 times or more in a year.
  • Chest infections many times.
  • Fatigue.
  • Hard to breathe.
  • Chest feels uncomfortable.
Chronic bronchitis is characterized by a productive cough that lasts for at least three months and will reappear for at least two consecutive years.

The Right Time to Get Yourself to a Doctor
Immediately see a doctor, if you suffer:
  • A very severe cough or that lasts longer than three weeks to interfere with sleep and daily activities.
  • Fever for more than three days.
  • Your coughing mucus is accompanied by blood.
  • Breathe rapidly about 30 times per minute or experience chest tightness.
  • Easily drowsy or confused.
  • Have been exposed to bronchitis many times before.
  • Suffer from heart or lung disease, such as asthma , emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or congestive heart failure.
  • Suffer from HIV-AIDS.

Causes Of Bronchitis

In general, acute bronchitis is caused by a virus and most of it is caused by a virus also causes colds and flu . The virus can be inhaled while stuck in the air. The virus is contained in millions of tiny drops coming out of the nose or mouth when we cough or sneeze. This virus can also survive on the surface of any object for one day. A person can get infected by touching a contaminated object, then put his hand near the mouth or nose. In addition to viruses, bronchitis infections can also be caused by bacteria.

The most important trigger of chronic bronchitis is smoking. People who smoke or live with active smokers are at increased risk of bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis can also be triggered by an unhealthy work environment. This condition is more commonly referred to as occupational bronchitis. The term occupational bronchitis is used when the patient experiences bronchitis due to irritating elements in the workplace such as fabric fibers, ammonia, dust flakes, and chlorine.


Diagnosis Of Bronchitis

If you have bronchitis, you may not need to see a doctor. Unless you experience severe symptoms. If you see a doctor, they can usually make a diagnosis by asking for symptoms, checking and listening to your chest cavity using a stethoscope.

Understanding Other Health Conditions
The doctor may need to check if there is any other lung infection. For example pneumonia that has the same symptoms as bronchitis. If your doctor suspects you have pneumonia, your doctor will take a sample of phlegm or mucus for examination. In addition, doctors will also perform X-ray imaging for the chest area.

If doctors suspect unknown basic illness and cause bronchitis, such as asthma and emphysema, lung function tests may be necessary. You are asked to take a deep breath and blow it on a device called a spirometer. This tool checks the lung performance by measuring the amount of air your lungs release. A decrease in the capacity of the amount of air in the lungs could mean a basic problem.


Treatment Of Bronchitis

Especially in cases of acute bronchitis, usually will heal by itself without medical treatment. Here are some simple ways to treat yourself:
  • Many rest.
  • Drink plenty of water. Water can help thin the mucus so it is easily removed from the lungs. Adequate fluid intake is also important to prevent dehydration .
  • Stop smoking and avoid smoke (factories, exhausts, chemicals). Smoking and smoke can worsen the bronchitis experienced.
  • Especially for children, give a mixture of honey with lemon that can help relieve sore throat .
  • Avoid taking cough medicine. Coughing actually helps to remove mucus or phlegm. You do not need to take cough medicine , except at night when cough interferes with your sleep.
Antibiotics will not be given in cases of bronchitis caused by the virus because it will not give any effect. Provision of antibiotics is necessary if there is a possibility of bacterial infection. If there is an increase in the amount of mucus and its viscosity, you are already infected with bacteria. The prescribed antibiotic prescription is usually for five days.

Treatment of Chronic Bronchitis
If you suffer from chronic bronchitis, your lungs automatically become more susceptible to infection. You may need annual flu vaccination and pneumonia vaccination . But if your doctor forbids you for some reason, do not vaccinate it. It is advisable to consult with your doctor before vaccinating anything.

Chronic bronchitis is treated in the same way as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To dilute the mucosa or mucus that exists, a drug called mucolytic can be consumed. The other way is lung rehabilitation. This is done to relieve symptoms that appear.

For chronic bronchitis, it is advisable to avoid drugs purchased free from pharmacies, unless the doctor advises them. The doctor will prescribe medication if the mucosa or mucus is difficult to remove. For people with chronic bronchitis, it is advisable to quit smoking so that conditions do not get worse.


Complications Bronchitis

Occurrence of Pneumonia
About 5 percent of people with bronchitis develop secondary infections in one or both lungs. This infection mainly attacks air pockets known as alveoli. This infection is also referred to as pneumonia . The risk of people suffering from pneumonia will increase if:
  • Old.
  • Have a smoking habit.
  • Suffer from other diseases such as the heart, or kidneys.
  • Have a weak immune system.
Symptoms of pneumonia include:
  • Rapid heartbeat.
  • Difficulty breathing. Breathing short and fast despite being rested.
  • Have a fever .
  • Feeling unwell.
  • Pain in the chest.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Chills
Mild pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics and plenty of rest. You are also advised to increase fluid consumption. But for more severe cases should be treated in the hospital. Respiratory or ventilator , can assist breathing. While antibiotics can be given directly into the blood vessels through an IV.

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