Bladder Stones or Bladder Calculi are stones formed from mineral deposits present in the bladder. The size of the bladder varies greatly and everyone has a risk of suffering from this condition. However, elderly men ( usually over the age of 52 years ) are more often experienced, especially those suffering from prostate enlargement. Urine can be blocked by bladder stones. Terhalang channel urine can cause patients to feel pain during urination, difficulty urination, or can not urinate at all. Usually, the patient needs the help of a doctor to remove the bladder stone from the body. However, if the stone is small, it can come out by itself with urine.
If you do not get the right treatment, bladder stone sufferers can experience several complications such as:
- Chronic bladder dysfunction. Unwanted bladder stones can cause pain, urinate too often, or even block the urinary tract.
- Urinary tract infection. Bladder stones may cause bacterial infection in the urinary tract of the patient.
- Neurogenic bladder . Diabetes, spinal injuries, strokes are some of the medical conditions that can damage the nerves that control the bladder. This nerve damage can cause the deposition of urine and trigger the formation of bladder stones.
- The impedance of the urinary tract. Any condition that blocks the flow of urine into the urethra resulting in the deposition of urine, can cause the formation of stones in the bladder.
Symptoms of bladder stones
Symptoms of bladder stones can be felt by most sufferers when the stone clogs the urinary tract or injures the bladder wall. Some of these symptoms, among them are:
- Pain during urination.
- Blood in the urine.
- Urine looks more dark and dark.
- Difficulty urinating.
- Feeling eager to always relieve water.
- Urination is not smooth or faltering
- The lower abdomen is painful.
- The penis feels uncomfortable or painful.
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Causes of bladder stones
The inability to remove all urine from within the bladder is a major cause of bladder stones. Minerals in the remaining urine in the bladder will precipitate and then harden and crystallize into stone. There are several conditions that can trigger the formation of bladder stones, namely:
- Inflammation. Inflammation of the bladder can be caused by a bladder infection or radiation therapy in the pelvic area.
- Prostate enlargement. The prostate gland in most men over 50 years will enlarge and suppress the urinary tract, and block the normal flow of urine from the bladder.
- Sistokel. This occurs when the support network between the bladder and the vagina weakens, causing the bladder to fall down and protrude toward the vagina. This condition will trap the flow of urine, so the urine settles and forms bladder stones.
- Medical devices. Medical equipment, such as catheters, can be the cause of bladder formation. Minerals in urine often crystallize on the surface of these medical devices.
- Diet. The risk of bladder stone formation will be higher when a diet high in fat, sugar, or salt is done and a low intake of vitamins A and B. Lack of drinking water can also increase the risk of bladder formation.
- Damage to bladder . When the bladder control nerves are damaged, the urine may not be completely discharged out of the body. This nerve damage condition is commonly called neurogenic bladder . This damage can be caused by a serious injury to the spine or neurological diseases, such as spina bifida .
- Kidney stones. Because the process of formation is different, kidney stones are not the same as bladder stones. But, usually small kidney stones can enter into the bladder and become a bladder stone.
- Bladder diverticles, namely the formation of a pouch on the bladder wall. This condition can already exist from birth, and can also be formed due to bladder infection or prostate enlargement. Particular can cause discharge of bladder emptying, so the risk of bladder stones due to urine deposits.
- Bladder enlargement surgery. Patients undergoing bladder enlargement surgery have a risk of having bladder stones.
Diagnosis of bladder stones
There are several checks that a doctor can do to determine if a person has bladder stones, namely:
- Physical examination. The doctor will examine the lower abdomen to see if the bladder is enlarged.
- Photo Rontgen . Using the help of X-rays to examine the bladder can indeed detect bladder stones, but some stone types can not be detected by this method. X-rays can also be combined with intravenous pyelogram examination, which uses contrast injection of compounds into the blood vessels. The contrast will flow to the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. This substance gives color to the urine channel to be seen clearly when doing the scan with X-rays.
- Analyst is urine. The doctor will examine the patient's urine fluid sample to determine the amount of crystalline blood, bacteria, and minerals. Urine examination may also help detect urinary tract infections that may be the cause of bladder stones.
- Ultrasound . Examination by utilizing ultrasonic sound waves can also help the doctor know the position of the bladder stone.
- Spiral CT scan. It is considered the most accurate and sensitive examination to detect bladder stones. Spiral CT scan can detect various types of bladder stones with even small size.
Treatment of bladder stones
If the stone inside the patient's bladder is small enough, the doctor may suggest drinking plenty of water, at least 1.2 liters per day. The goal is to remove the bladder from urine. However, if the size is large enough, there are some medical measures that can be done to remove the bladder stone from the body.
Some medical measures that a doctor can take to remove a bladder stone are:
- Cystolitholapaxy . The doctor will destroy the stone inside the bladder into small pieces with lasers, ultrasonic sound waves, or special mechanical devices. Although quite effective, the patient has a risk for infection and injury to the bladder after undergoing this procedure.
- Surgery. This procedure is performed if the size of the bladder stone is too large and too hard to remove by cystolitholapaxy .
Prevention of bladder stones
Because the water is able to dissolve the mineral deposits in the bladder, it is advisable to drink plenty of water to prevent the formation of bladder stones. Consult a doctor to determine the amount of water consumption is adequate, according to body size, activity, age, and health conditions.