Tachycardia is a condition in which a person's heartbeat is above normal in resting conditions. The heart rate of healthy adults is 60 to 100 times per minute at rest. The heart rate in the tachycardia patient is at least 100 times per minute. When the heart beats too fast, the heart does not pump effectively. And finally, the blood flow will decrease, both throughout the body and into the heart itself.
Tachycardia is characterized by increased heart rate in the upper chambers of the heart, lower chambers of the heart, or both spaces. Heartbeat is controlled by electrical signals sent to the entire heart tissue. This signal comes from a small area between the upper and lower chambers of the heart. When the production of accelerated signals will arise tachycardia.
In some cases, tachycardia does not cause certain symptoms or complications. But when the heart muscle begins to lack oxygen from working too hard, tachycardia becomes complicated. The severity of complications triggered by tachycardia varies, depending on several factors such as the type of tachycardia, the number of heartbeats and the duration of the heart beating above normal. Some of the complications that tachycardia can cause are:
- Stroke or heart attack, due to blood clots.
- Heart failure.
- Often fainted.
- Sudden death.
Symptoms of Tachycardia
Symptoms are something that is felt and told by the sufferer. A heart that is too fast to beat will not pump blood throughout the body effectively. As a result there will be oxygen deprivation in some organs and tissues, and cause the appearance of some symptoms and signs:
- Heart pounding.
- Chest pain (angina).
- Feeling bewildered.
- Suddenly feeling tired.
- Heartbeats are fast.
- Breath becomes short or shortness of breath.
- Hypotension and head feel light.
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The rhythm of the heartbeat is normally controlled by the atrioventricular node, which produces an initial electrical impulse trigger each heartbeat. The cause of tachycardia is the factors that interfere with the electrical impulse, so the heartbeat is faster than normal.
The electric impulse disturbing factor is quite a lot, some of which are:
- Consume too much liquor and caffeine.
- Damaged heart tissue due to heart disease.
- High blood pressure.
- Physical training.
- Side effects of treatment.
- Heart disease or heart disease and congenital heart pathway.
- Drug use.
- Stress that appears suddenly, for example when the fear.
- Electrolyte imbalance in the body.
Some common types of tachycardia are:
- Atrial fibrillation, is a heartbeat above normal due to electrical obstruction in the atrium (porch) of the heart.
- Atrial flutter, is a condition in which the atrial heart beats very quickly but regularly. This is due to a series of electrical signal conduction in the irregular atrium of the heart.
- Supraventricular tachycardia, occurs in the heart portion above the ventricle or atrium. This is due to abnormal electrical conduction circuit in the heart which generally has occurred at birth.
- Ventricular tachycardia, is a heartbeat above normal due to electrical signals that are split between the atrium and into the heart's ventricle. This excessive heartbeat makes the ventricle unable to fill and contracts efficiently in pumping blood.
Diagnosis of Tachycardia
Diagnosis is a doctor's step to identify a disease or condition that explains the symptoms and signs experienced by the patient. There are several diagnostic procedures that the doctor will run if the patient is suspected of tachycardia, namely:
- Blood test . This test will help in case of interference with the thyroid or other elements that could be the cause of tachycardia. Complications of tachycardia will also worsen if you have anemia or impaired kidney function. This test can determine if you experience it.
- Electrocardiogram test (EKG). This is a major procedure for diagnosing tachycardia. Some small sensors are attached to the chest and the patient's hand to record the pattern of electrical signals as it passes through the heart.
- Electrophysiological test. The doctor will insert a small tube with the electrode at the end of the arm, neck, or groin of the patient's thigh, then the doctor will direct the tube to some point in the heart. This test is to assess every impulse conductivity each before the heart beats whether it is normal or not.
- The test table is skewed. Patients will be asked to take a drug that triggers a tachycardia attack. After that the patient will be asked to sleep on a special table, which will be tilted so that the patient's position as it is standing. The doctor will observe the patient's nervous and cardiac response to this change of position.
- Chest X-ray. Doctors can see the condition of the heart and lungs of patients in isolation. This test can also help doctors see if there is congenital heart disease.
Treatment and Prevention of Tachycardia
Handling tachycardia is intended to slow the patient's heart rate and prevent it from recurrence. There are several steps to handle tachycardia, namely:
- Vagal maneuver. The doctor will ask the patient to perform a vagal maneuver when the tachycardia is attacking. This maneuver will affect the vagus nerve, which will help lower heart rate.
- Drugs. If the vagal maneuver can not lower the heart rate, then the doctor will generally provide anti-arrhythmic drugs.
- Cardioversion. In this procedure, an electric shock is sent to the heart. This electrical flow will affect the electrical impulses on the heart and normalize the heart beat rhythm.
- Catheter ablation. In this procedure, the catheter will insert into the groin, arm or neck and direct it to the heart. The electrodes at the end of the catheter will turn off the abnormal electrical lines of the heart with heat or cold energy.
- Drugs. Consumption of anti-arrhythmia drugs on a regular basis can prevent the heart beat above normal speed. Doctors may also prescribe blood-thinning medications, because tachycardia patients are at high risk for blood clots.
- Pacemakers. Patients can also install a small pacemaker planted under the skin. This device will emit electrical waves that help the heart beat normally.
- A heart defibrillator implant, in which the implant is placed on the chest and is tasked with monitoring the heartbeat and then sending an electric wave to stimulate the normal heartbeat. The doctor will suggest the installation of this tool if the tachycardia threatens the safety of his soul.
- Surgery. Heart surgery may be needed to remove an abnormal electrical pathway.
- Stop smoking.
- Control the consumption of alcoholic beverages and those containing caffeine
- Maintain weight, cholesterol levels and normal blood pressure.
- Always exercise and eat healthy foods.
- Avoid using drugs.
- Be careful in taking any free medication, and be sure to adjust to the instructions.
- Try to keep the mind from stress.
- Check your health regularly and report any symptoms to your doctor.