Long, 31, played for the Miami Dolphins, St. Louis Rams, Atlanta Falcons and spent last season with the Minnesota Vikings.
He suffered a season-ending injury to his left Achilles tendon in a November loss to the Washington Redskins.
Long was a four-time Pro Bowl selection, earning first-team AP All-Pro honors in 2010.
“As I continue with my recent rehab,” Long wrote on Twitter, “I realize that although my heart and mind still want to play, my body is telling me something completely different.”
Long was drafted No. 1 overall by the Miami Dolphins in 2008 after several All-American seasons at the University of Michigan.
Long played in 104 games with 99 starts in his NFL career.
- Scooby Axson
Jake Long retires after 9 seasons
Former No. 1 pick Jake Long announced his retirement from the NFL on Monday.
Long, the first overall pick in the 2008 NFL draft by the Miami Dolphins, played only four games with the Minnesota Vikings in 2016 before he suffered a torn Achilles on Nov. 13 and was lost for the remainder of the season.
In his statement, posted on Twitter, announcing his retirement, he said his rehab from the Achilles injury has made him "realize that although my heart and mind still want to play, my body is telling me something completely different."
The Vikings signed Long, 31, in October after they had had lost tackles Matt Kalil and Andre Smith to season-ending injuries. Long, who was reunited with offensive line coach and former Dolphins head coach Tony Sparano, assumed the starting spot in just his second game with Minnesota.
The four-time Pro Bowl selection (2008-11) last played more than 10 games in a season in 2013, when he started 15 games for the Rams. Since then, Long has played in just 15 games for the Rams, Falcons and Vikings.